Adrian Mooy & Co - Accountants Derby

Adrian Mooy & Co

Welcome to our home page. We are a firm of Chartered Certified Accountants and tax advisors in Derby. We help businesses like yours grow and be more profitable.  For a friendly service covering audit, tax, accounts, self assessment, VAT & payroll please contact us.

 

How can we help you?

We offer a traditional personal service and welcome new clients.

From start-up to exit and everything in-between - whether you’re  struggling with company formation, bookkeeping, or annual accounts and taxation, you can count on us at every step of  your business’s journey.

We also offer cloud-based accounting solutions. With the power of cloud accounting in your hands, you can access accurate real-time data on the go, accept instant payments and even automate repetitive tasks like invoicing. Fast, easy, touch-of-a-button accounting is the future.

If you are looking for a Derby accountant then please contact us.

○  Quality checked firm - awarded the ACCA Quality Checked mark

○  Tax solutions to help you keep your income

○  Cloud-based accounting solutions

○  Transparent affordable pricing

Accountants Derby
Accountants Derby

TAX BRIEFING

MARCH 2019

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Tax Planning for individuals

Tax Planning for Individuals

Successful individual tax planning requires careful attention across a wide range of areas and time frames.

Tax Planning for small business

Tax Planning for Small Business

Effective tax-saving strategies for small businesses operating in a tough economic climate.

Contractors and Freelancers

Contractors & Freelancers

Invoicing your contracting work through a limited company is highly tax efficient.

  • Here are some tips for saving your company corporation tax and extracting money from your company tax efficiently. Why pay more than you need to? Company owners - Saving tax

  • The approach of a company’s year end is an important time to look at tax saving. Action has to be taken by that date, otherwise the opportunities could be lost. Company tax saving

Services

We offer a range of high quality services

Web-based accounting

Xero is a web-based accounting system designed with the needs of small business owners in mind.

 

It can automatically connect to your bank and download your bank statements. From there it’s simple to tell Xero what transactions relate to and once told it remembers and looks out for similar transactions. This saves time and makes keeping your accounts up to date easier.

 

Log in from any web browser. As your accountant we can log in and provide help.

 

Making Tax Digital - VAT

Our process for delivering tax accounting vat self assessment and payroll services

 

Arrow indicating direction of process flow

Our Process

Understand your needs

Firstly we listen and gain an understanding of your business and what you are aiming to achieve.

Continuous improvement

We seek your opinions on the service we provide and respond to feedback in order to upgrade and improve what we do.

Build a relationship

Success in business is based around relationships and trust. Our objective is to develop and build strong relationships with our clients, based on two way trust and respect.

Confirm your expectations

Our aim is  to help you maximise your business potential and we tailor our service to meet your requirements and agree a timetable for delivering them.

Actively communicate

Communication is important to the success of any commercial venture. It is therefore a vital part of our work with you, sharing the knowledge and ideas that help you to realise your ambitions.

Our Process

Understand your needs

Confirm your expectations

Actively communicate

Build a relationship

Continuous improvement

Straightforward and easy to deal with Adrian Mooy & Co provide an efficient, friendly and professional service - payroll, tax returns, annual accounts and VAT returns are always done on time.    Eddie Morris

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Testimonials

First class! Super accountant! We have been with Adrian Mooy & Co since 1994. They provide a prompt, accurate & reliable service. There is always someone at the end of the phone to help and advise us. They have always delivered and we are more than happy to recommend them.    Ian Cannon

Helpsheets

Business expenses

Being savvy with your expenses is a large part of running a successful business, regardless of its size. Claiming expenses is a simple way to keep your business tax efficient – it reduces your profit, which in turn reduces your tax payments. By claiming every allowable expense you’re making sure you don’t pay a penny more in tax than you have to.

 

For more information about exactly what expenses you can claim, see our helpsheets.

  • What makes a property a residence?

    Capital gains tax private residence relief is available where a property is occupied as the taxpayer’s only or main residence. The question of what constitutes ‘occupation as a residence’ was considered recently by the Tribunal, with perhaps surprising results.

    Quality not quantity

    There is no minimum period of residence that is needed for private residence relief to be in point; rather it is necessary to look at the quality of the occupation. The term ‘residence’ is not defined in the legislation is relation to private residence relief, and thus takes its ordinary everyday meaning, i.e. the place where a person lives – their home.

    Need to cook, eat, sleep and do laundry

    In Hezi Yechiel TC06829 the Tribunal considered whether the taxpayer occupied the property in question as his main home. He had purchased it 2007 intending to make it a home for himself and his then fiancée. The property required a significant amount of work and planning permission was sought to extend the property. The taxpayer got married in 2008, but the couple separated in early 2011 having never lived in the property. Mr Yechiel moved into the property in April 2011. It was advertised for rent or sale in October 2011 and sold in August 2012. Mr Yechiel moved in with his parents, who lived 15 minutes away, in December 2011.

    A builder who had been engaged by Mr Yechiel to work on the property had ‘kitted up’ a bedroom and kitchen. Mr Yechiel slept in the property every night from April 2011 to July 2011 and was present at the property every morning during that period. He brought a bed and a side table for the property. While he used the kitchen for basics, he did not cook there – he mainly ate at his parents, having a takeaway if he ate at the property. His mother did his laundry.

    While the Tribunal accepted that Mr Yechiel occupied the property, they found that his occupation lacked the sufficient quality to constitute residence – it did not have the necessary degree of permanence. Mr Yechiels intentions were of importance, and he had no clear plan – he moved into the property as he needed somewhere to live, with the intention of living there for a period of time.

    The Tribunal considered not only his intention, but also what he did and did not do in the property. He slept there, but spent a considerable part of the day at his parents’ home. He did not cook at the property and his laundry was done by his mother.

    The Tribunal considered ‘that to have a quality of residence, the occupation of the house should constitute not only sleeping, but also periods of ‘’living’’, being cooking, eating a meal sitting down, and generally spending some periods of leisure there’. They found that Mr Yechiel’s occupation lacked sufficient quality to be considered a period of residence, and as such he was not entitled to private residence relief and lettings relief.

    The moral of the story

    Merely sleeping at a property is not enough to qualify it as a ‘residence’ – you must also do your laundry and cook there to satisfy the Tribunal.

  • Putting property in joint name – beware a potential SDLT charge

    There are a number of scenarios in which a couple may decide to put a property which was previously in sole name into joint names. This may happen when the couple start to live together, get married or enter a civil partnership. Alternatively, it may occur if the couple take advantage of the capital gains tax no gain/no loss rule for spouses and civil partners to transfer ownership of an investment property into joint name prior to sale to reduce the capital gains tax bill.

    While most people are aware that stamp duty land tax is payable when they purchase a property, they may be unaware of the potential charge that may arise if they put a property in joint names – it all depends on the value of the consideration, if any.

    It should be noted that Land and Buildings Transaction Tax (LBTT) applies to properties in Scotland Land Transaction Tax to properties in Wales.

    What counts as consideration?

    The problem is that the definition of ‘consideration’ extends to more than just money – it also includes taking over a debt, the release of a debt and the provision of goods, works and services. So, while there may be no transfer of money when a couple put a property in joint names, if they also put the mortgage in joint names, depending on the amount of the mortgage taken on, they may trigger an SDLT charge.

    Case study 1

    Following their marriage, Lily moves into Karl’s house. They decide to put the property in joint names as well as the mortgage of £200,000. There is no transfer of money, but Lily assumes responsibility for half the mortgage. Lily is a first-time buyer having previously rented.

    The valuable consideration is the share of the mortgage taken on by Lily, i.e. £100,000. As this is less than the first-time buyer threshold of £300,000, there is no SDLT to pay.

    Case study 2

    Anna has several investment properties in her sole name. She is planning on selling a property and expects to realise a chargeable gain of £30,000. As her wife Petra has not used her annual exempt amount, she transfers 50% of the property into Petra’s name to make use of this. There is a £50,000 mortgage on the property, which remains in Anna’s sole name.

    There is no valuable consideration and no SDLT to pay.

    Case study 3

    Following their marriage, Helen moves into her new husband Michael’s home. The property is worth £700,000 and has a mortgage of £400,000. Helen gives Michael £100,000 from the sale of her previous home, which he uses to reduce the mortgage. They then transfer the remaining mortgage of £300,000 into joint name,

    Helen had assumed that there would be no SDLT to pay as the £100,000 she had given Michael is less than the SDLT threshold of £125,000. However, the consideration also includes the share of the mortgage taken on of £150,000, so the total consideration is £250,000. As a result, SDLT of £2,500 (on the slice from £125,000 to £250,000 at 2%) is payable.

    The whole picture

    It is important to look at the whole picture when putting property in joint names – sharing the mortgage may trigger an unexpected SDLT bill.

  • Simplified deductions where your business is based at home

    Many small businesses are run from home. Where a business is run from home, household costs will be incurred which are attributable to the business. These may include additional costs of gas and electricity to provide heat and light to the home office or workshop and to power the computer or equipment, the costs of additional cleaning, and suchlike.

    Expenses which are wholly and exclusively incurred for the purposes of the business can be deducted in working out the profits of the business. This will inevitably involve a certain amount of record keeping in order to identify what those expenses are. As far as household bills are concerned, it is permissible to deduct a proportion of the total household expenses in computing the business profits, with the apportionment being made on a ‘just and reasonable’ basis.

    Claim simplified expenses instead

    Businesses can save themselves the hassle of working out the proportion of household costs that relate to the business by instead using HMRC’s simplified expenses to claim a deduction for the costs of working from home. The deduction is a set amount per month, depending on the number of hours worked at home on the business each month. The hours include not only hours worked by the proprietor, but also hours worked in the home by any staff.

    The monthly deduction is shown in the table below.

    Hours of business use per month Monthly flat rate deduction

    25 to 50        £10

    51 to 100      £18

    101 or more  £26

     

    The simplified expenses do not cover telephone and internet costs, in respect of which a separate deduction can be claimed.

    Example

    Luke is self-employed as a graphic designer. He runs his business from his house.

    He normally works at home for 120 hours a month, except in August when he works 20 hours and December when he works 60 hours. He is able to claim a deduction for the year of £288 (being 10 months @ £26, one month @ £10 and one month @ £18).

    Actual or simplified?

    While claiming a deduction based on simplified expenses is a lot less hassle, it may not necessarily give the greatest deduction. Where the trader thinks the time spent working out a deduction based on actual costs is worthwhile, only they can decide.

  • Making Tax Digital for VAT – what records must be kept digitally

    Making Tax Digital (MTD) for VAT starts from 1 April 2019. VAT-registered businesses whose turnover is above the VAT registration threshold of £85,000 will be required to comply with MTD for VAT from the start of their first VAT accounting period to begin on or after 1 April 2019.

    Digital record-keeping obligations

    Under MTD for VAT, businesses will be required to keep digital records and to file their VAT returns using functional compatible software. The following records must be kept digitally.

    Designatory data - Business name - Address of the principal place of business - VAT registration number - A record of any VAT schemes used (such as the flat rate scheme)

    Supplies made - for each supply made: - Date of supply - Value of the supply - Rate of VAT charged

    Outputs value for the VAT period split between standard rate, reduced rate, zero rate and outside the scope supplies must also be recorded.

    Multiple supplies made at the same time do not need to be recorded separately – record the total value of supplies on each invoice that has the same time of supply and rate of VAT charged.

    Supplies received - for each supply received: - The date of supply - The value of the supply, including any VAT that cannot be reclaimed - The amount of input VAT to be reclaimed.

    If there is more than one supply on the invoice, it is sufficient just to record the invoice totals.

    Digital VAT account

    The VAT account links the business records and the VAT return. The VAT account must be maintained digitally, and the following information should be recorded digitally:

    1. The output tax owed on sales.
    2. The output tax owed on acquisitions from other EU member states.
    3. The tax that must be paid on behalf of suppliers under the reverse charge procedures.
    4. Any VAT that must be paid following a correction or an adjustment for an error.
    5. Any other adjustments required under the VAT rules.

    In addition, to show the link between the input tax recorded in the business' records and that reclaimed on the VAT return, the following must be recorded digitally:

    1. The input tax which can be reclaimed from business purchases.
    2. The input tax allowable on acquisitions from other EU member states.
    3. Any VAT that can be reclaimed following a correction or an adjustment for an error.
    4. Any other necessary adjustments.

    The information held in the Digital VAT account is used to complete the VAT return using `functional compatible software’.  This is software, or a set of compatible software programmes, capable of:

    • Recording electronically the data required to be kept digitally under MTD for VAT.
    • Preserving those records electronically.
    • Providing HMRC with the required information and VAT return electronically from the data in the electronic records using an API platform.
    • Receiving information from HMRC.

    Functional compatible software is used to maintain the mandatory digital records, calculate the return and submit it to HMRC via an API.

    Getting ready - The clock is ticking and MTD for VAT is now less than a year away.

  • Entrepreneurs’ relief – what do the Budget changes mean?

    Ahead of the 2018 Budget there was some speculation that entrepreneurs’ relief may be scrapped. In the event, this did not happen. However, the relief made an appearance with the announcement of changes to the personal company test, applying from Budget day, and of a doubling of the qualifying period throughout which the conditions must be met for two years from 6 April 2019.

    Nature of the relief - Entrepreneurs’ relief reduces the rate of capital gains tax on disposals of qualifying assets to 10%. This is subject to a lifetime limit of £10 million. Spouses and civil partners have their own limit.

    The relief is available where there is:

    • a material disposal of business assets;

    • a disposal associated with a material disposal; or

    • a disposal of trust business assets.

    Availability of entrepreneurs’ relief is contingent on the qualifying conditions being met. The qualifying conditions depend on the type of disposal.

    The relief is complex, and a detailed discussion of the relief is beyond the scope of this article. However, guidance is available in HMRC’s Capital Gains Tax Manual at CG63950ff.

    Shares in a personal company - Entrepreneurs’ relief is available for disposals of shares or securities in a personal company. To qualify, throughout the ‘qualifying period’ the company must be a personal company and either a trading company or the holding company of a trading group. The taxpayer must either be an officer or an employee of that company or of one or more members of the trading group.

    The definition of a ‘personal company’ changed from 29 October 2018 (Budget day). Prior to that date, a personal company was one in which the individual held at least 5% of the ordinary share capital and that holding gave the holder at least 5% of the voting rights in the company.

    From 29 October 2018 two further conditions must be met. The holding must also provide entitlement to at least 5% of the company’s distributable profits and 5% of the assets available for distribution to equity holders in a winding up.

    Qualifying period - Entrepreneurs’ relief is only available if the conditions are met throughout the ‘qualifying period’. This is currently set at one year. However, it was announced in the Budget that the qualifying period will be doubled to two years from 6 April 2019 (except in relation to disposals where the business ceased prior to 29 October 2018).

    Securing the relief - The timing of the disposal is important in securing the relief. If the disposal is one of shares in a personal company, and the new definition is not met, the qualifying period clock cannot start to run until the date when all conditions are met. To secure relief, the shares should not be disposed of until at least two years from the date on all of the conditions are first met.

    Where the conditions have already been met for one year but will not have been met for two years by 6 April 2019, it may be preferable to dispose of the shares prior to 6 April 2019 to secure the relief. Alternatively, if the disposal is to take place after that date, it will make sense to wait until conditions have been met for two years in order to benefit from the relief.

  • Director’s loan accounts: recording personal expenses

    HMRC commonly find errors in relation to directors’ loan accounts when making routine reviews of company tax returns. This article looks at the importance of maintaining proper records of cash and non-cash transactions between the company and the directors.

    Directors’ personal expenses

    A statutory rule states that a company may not deduct expenditure in computing its taxable profits unless it is incurred ‘wholly and exclusively’ for the purposes of the trade. As companies are separate legal entities that stand apart from their directors and shareholders they do not incur ‘personal’ expenses. However, many companies, particularly 'close' companies (broadly, one that is controlled by five or fewer shareholders (participators)), pay the personal expenses of the directors. It is important to note that where payments, either made to or incurred on behalf of a director, do not form part of their remuneration package, these amounts may not be an allowable company expense and may not therefore be deductible for corporation tax purposes. In such circumstances it may be appropriate for these items to be set against the director's loan account. However, establishing whether a payment forms part of a director's remuneration package can be complex.

    Accounting disclosure requirements for directors’ remuneration include sums paid by way of expense allowance and estimated money value of other benefits received other than in cash. The money value is not the same as the taxable amount, although this is often used in practice. This means the onus is on the director to justify why amounts not disclosed in accounts should be accepted as part of the remuneration package rather than debited to his or her loan account.

    Where the expenditure forms part of the remuneration package it will be an allowable expense of the company and the appropriate employment taxes (PAYE income tax and NICs) should be paid. Where the expenditure does not form part of the remuneration package the relevant amount should normally be debited to the director's loan account.

    Cash transactions

    Cash transactions between the company and directors may have tax consequences. Broadly, at the end of an accounting period, if the director owes the company money, a tax charge may arise. Subject to certain conditions, a charge may arise where a director’s loan account is overdrawn at the end of the accounting period and remains overdrawn nine months and one day after the end of that accounting period. The tax charge (known as the ‘s 455 charge’) is the liability of the company and is calculated as 32.5% of the amount of the loan. The tax charge can potentially be avoided if the loan is cleared by the corporation tax due date of nine months and one day after the end of the accounting period.

    Record-keeping

    Good record keeping of all cash and non-cash transactions between a company and its directors is essential. Poorly kept records can mean that information provided is not accurate, which in turn may result in non-business expenditure incurred by the directors being incorrectly recorded or mis posted in the business records and claimed in error as an allowable expense. Conversely, justifiable business expenditure incurred by the directors may not be claimed or claimed inaccurately. Consequently, directors' loan account balances may be incorrect resulting in s 455 tax being underpaid, or corporation tax relief not claimed by the company at the appropriate time.

  • Employer childcare vouchers v Government scheme

    Employees who joined their employer’s childcare voucher or employer-supported childcare scheme before 4 October 2018 can remain in that scheme and benefit from the associated tax relief for as long as the employer continues to offer it. However, this may not always be the best option for the employee – depending on their circumstances they may be better signing up to the Government’s top-up scheme instead.

    Tax relief for employer-provided vouchers

    Employees who joined an employer childcare voucher scheme or directly contracted childcare scheme prior to 4 October 2018 can continue to receive the associated tax relief. Vouchers or directly-contracted childcare are tax and National Insurance free up to the exempt amount. This depends on when the employee joined the scheme and, where the employee joined the scheme on or after 6 April 2011, the rate at which they pay tax.

    The exempt amount is set at £55 per week where the employee joined prior to 6 April 2011; for employees joining after that date, the exempt amounts are £55 for basic rate taxpayers, £28 per week for higher rate taxpayers and £25 per week for additional rate taxpayers (ensuring the relief is worth £11 per week to all taxpayers).

    Each employee is only entitled to one exempt amount to cover childcare vouchers and directly-contracted care, and regardless of how many children they have. However, each parent can benefit from their own exempt amount.

    Childcare vouchers and directly-contracted care can be provided via a salary sacrifice or other optional remuneration arrangement without triggering the alternative valuation rules. This means that the tax exemption is preserved where provision is made in this way.

    Government scheme

    Under the Government scheme, parents can open an online account and receive a tax-free top up of 20p for every 80p that they deposit into the account. The maximum top up is £2,000 per child per tax-year. The Government scheme cannot be used in conjunction with universal credit or tax credits.

    Which scheme is best?

    Parents cannot benefit from both the employer scheme and the Government scheme, so must choose which is best for them.

    Where the employee joined the employer scheme on or after 6 April 2011, the tax relief from employer scheme is worth £11 per week (£583 per year (based on 53 weeks) if one parent receives the vouchers and £1166 if two parents do.

    Under the Government scheme, the parents would need to contribute £2332 to receive a top-up of £583 and £4664 to receive a top up of £1166. To benefit from the maximum £2,000 top-up, the parents would need to contribute £8,000.

    There is no substitute for crunching the numbers – parents should consider both options and decide what is best for them.

  • Employees: tax-free benefits to keep them healthy

    More than 25 million working days are lost annually due to work-related ill health matters, including the two leading causes of workplace absence, namely back injuries and stress, depression or anxiety. There are however, several areas where employers can use tax breaks and exemptions to help promote health and fitness at work.

    Gym facilities and memberships

    In-house gym facilities may be offered to employees at a convenient location to fit in around work and there will be no tax or NIC liability arising if the following conditions are satisfied:

    • the facilities must be available for use by all employees, but not to the general public;
    • they must be used mainly by employees, former employees or members of employees’ families and households;
    • the facilities must not be located in a private home, holiday or other overnight accommodation (including any associated sporting facilities); and
    • they must not involve use of a mechanically propelled vehicle (including road vehicles & boats).

    For employers who cannot practically provide in-house gym facilities, it may be possible to negotiate favourable membership rates with a local gym or leisure centre. Whilst this may lead to a tax liability for employees, the preferential rate can often be up to 20% - 30% cheaper than the normal price, so this is still an attractive offer for employees.  Depending on how the cost of the gym membership is funded, the fees will either be taxed as earnings or as a taxable benefit-in-kind. So, for example, if an employer gives the employee additional salary to pay for their gym membership, the money is taxed as earnings through PAYE. If the employer pays the gym membership direct, a taxable benefit-in-kind arises on the employee and should be reported to HMRC on form P11D, or through the payroll.

    Where an employer pays for a gym membership and the employee contributes towards the cost from their net pay (after tax and NICs), this is referred to as ‘making good’. The amount of the benefit (cost of gym membership) is reduced by the amount of the contribution.

    Health-screening, check-ups and recommended treatments

    A tax and NIC-free exemption allows employers to fund one health-screening assessment and/or one medical check-up per year per employee.

    Subject to an annual cap of £500 per employee, employer expenditure on medical treatments recommended by employer-arranged occupational health services may be exempt for tax and NICs. ‘Medical treatment’ means all procedures for diagnosing or treating any physical or mental illness, infirmity or defect. Broadly, in order for the exemption to apply, the employee must have either:

    • been assessed by a health care professional as unfit for work (or will be unfit for work) because of injury or ill health for at least 28 days;
    • been absent from work because of injury or ill health for at least 28 days.

    Employer-funded eye, eyesight test, and ‘special corrective appliances’ (i.e. glasses or contact lenses) may also be exempt for ta and NICs, providing certain conditions are satisfied.

    Many employees struggle to fit physical activity into their busy working days but research shows that being active for just one hour can offset the potential harm of being inactive. As fitness and health issues become increasingly popular, anything an employer can do to help is likely to be most welcomed by employees.

  • Using the cash basis – is it for you?

    The cash basis is a simpler way of working out taxable profits compared to the traditional accruals method. The cash basis takes account only of money in and money out – income is recognised when received and expenses are recognised when paid. By contrast, the accruals basis matches income and expenditure to the period to which it relates. Consequently, where the cash basis is used there is no need to recognise debtors, creditors, prepayments and accruals, as is the case under the accruals basis.

    Example

    Ben is a self-employed plumber. He prepares accounts to 31 March each year. On 28 March 2019 he fits a new shower, invoicing the customer £600 on 29 March 2019. The customer pays the bill on 7 April 2019.

    He purchased the shower for £400 on 25 March 2019, receiving an invoice from his supplier dated the same date. He pays the bill on 8 April 2019 after he has been paid by the customer.

    On the cash basis, the income of £600 and expenditure of £400 fall in the year to 31 March 2020 – they are recognised, respectively, when received and paid (in April 2019). By contrast, under the accruals basis, the income and expenditure falls into the year to 31 March 2019 as this is when the work was done and invoiced.

    Who can use the cash basis?

    The cash basis is available to small self-employed businesses (such as sole traders and partnerships) whose turnover computed on the cash basis is less than £150,000. Once a trader has elected to use the cash basis, they can continue to do so until their turnover exceeds £300,000. These limits are doubled for universal credit claimants.

    Limited companies and limited liability partnerships cannot use the cash basis.

    Advantages of the cash basis

    The main advantage of the cash basis is its simplicity – there are no complicated accounting concepts to get to grips with. Because income is not recognised until it is received, it means that tax is not payable for a period on money that was not actually received in that period. This also provides automatic relief for bad debts without having to claim it.

    Not for everyone

    Despite the advantageous associated with its simplicity, the cash basis is not for everyone. The cash basis may not be the right basis for you if:

    • you want to claim a deduction for bank interest or charges of more than £500 (a £500 cap applies under the cash basis);

    • your business is more complex, for example, you hold high levels of stock;

    • your need to obtain finance – banks and other institutions often ask for accounts prepared on the accruals basis;

    • you want to claim sideways loss relief (i.e. set a trading loss against your other income) – this is not permitted under the cash basis.

    Need to elect

    If the cash basis is for you, you need to elect for it to apply by ticking the relevant box in your self-assessment return.

  • Salary v dividend for 2019/20

    A popular profits extraction strategy for personal and family companies is to extract a small salary, taking further profits as dividends. Where this strategy is pursued for 2019/20, what level should be the salary be set at to ensure the strategy remain tax efficient?

    Salary

    As well as being tax effective, taking a small salary is also advantageous in that it allows the individual to secure a qualifying year for State Pension and contributory benefits purposes.

    Assuming the personal allowance has not been used elsewhere and is available to set against the salary, the optimal salary level for 2019/20 depends on whether the employment allowance is available and whether the employee is under the age of 21. The employment allowance is set at £3,000 for 2019/20 but is not available to companies where the sole employee is also a director (meaning that personal companies do not generally benefit).

    In the absence of the employment allowance and where the individual is aged 21 or over, the optimal salary for 2019/20 is equal to the primary threshold, i.e. £8,632 a year (equivalent to £719 per month). At this level, no employee’s or employer’s National Insurance or tax is due. The salary is also deductible for corporation tax purposes. A bonus is that a salary at this level means that the year is a qualifying year for state pension and contributory benefits purposes – for zero contribution cost. Beyond this level, it is better to take dividends than pay a higher salary as the combined National Insurance hit (25.8%) is higher than the corporation tax deduction for salary payments.

    Where the employment allowance is available, or the employee is under 21, it is tax-efficient to pay a higher salary equal to the personal allowance of £12,500. As long as the personal allowance is available, the salary will be tax free. It will also be free of employer’s National Insurance, either because the liability is offset by the employment allowance or, if the individual is under 21, because earnings are below the upper secondary threshold for under 21s (set at £50,000 for 2019/20). The salary paid in excess of the primary threshold (£3,868) will attract primary contributions of £464.16, but this is outweighed by the corporation tax saving on the additional salary of £734.92 – a net saving of £279.76. Once a salary equal to the personal allowance is reached, the benefit of the corporation tax deduction is lost as any further salary is taxable. It is tax efficient to extract further profits as dividends.

    Dividends

    Dividends can only be paid if the company has sufficient retained profits available. Unlike salary payments, dividends are not tax-deductible and are paid out of profits on which corporation tax (at 19%) has already been paid.

    However, dividends benefit from their own allowance – set at £2,000 for 2019/20 and payable to all individuals regardless of the rate at which they pay tax – and once the allowance has been used, dividends are taxed at lower rates than salary payments (7.5%, 32.5% and 38.1% rather than 20%, 40% and 45%).

    Once the optimal salary has been paid, dividends should be paid to use up the dividend allowance. If further profits are to be extracted, there will be tax to pay, but the combined tax and National Insurance hit for dividends is less than for salary payments, making them the preferred option.

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  • Getting ready for MTD for VAT

    The start date for Making Tax Digital (MTD) for VAT is fast approaching – from the start of your first VAT accounting period beginning on or after 1 April 2019, if you are a VAT registered business with VATable turnover over the VAT registration threshold of £85,000, you will need to comply with MTD for VAT. This will mean maintaining digital records and filing the VAT return using MTD-compatible software. Businesses within MTD for VAT will no longer be able to use HMRC’s VAT Online service to file their VAT return. However, you can still use an agent to file your return on your behalf.

    Businesses whose VATable turnover is below the registration threshold do not have to join MTD, but can choose to do so if they wish. However, once they are within MTD for VAT, they must remain in it as long as they are VAT registered – there is no going back.

    If you have yet to start preparing for MTD for VAT, it is now time to do so.

    What does MTD for VAT mean for you?

    Under MTD for VAT you will need to keep your business records digitally if you do not already do so. If you are already using software to keep your business records, you will need to check that your software supplier plans to introduce MTD-compatible software, and upgrade as necessary.

    If you do not currently keep your VAT records digitally or your current software supplier does not plan to introduce MTD-compatible software, you will need to choose software that will enable you to fulfil your MTD for VAT obligations.

    MTD-compatible software

    MTD-compatible software (also referred to as ‘functional compatible software’) is a software product or set of software products which meet the obligations imposed by MTD for VAT and enable records to be kept digitally and data to be exchanged digitally with HMRC via the MTD service. Where more than one product is being used, the data flows between the applications must be digital – data cannot be entered manually. However, businesses will be allowed to cut and paste data from one application to another until 31 March 2020, after which all links must be digital.

    Spreadsheets

    If you currently use spreadsheets to summarise VAT transactions, calculate VAT or to arrive at the information needed to complete the VAT, once MTD starts, you will be able to continue to do so. However, you will no longer be able to key the relevant figures into the appropriate boxes on the VAT return. Instead you will need to use MTD-compatible software to enable you to send your VAT returns to HMRC and to receive information back from VAT. Bridging software may be used to make spreadsheets MTD-compatible.

    However, to comply with MTD for VAT, the data must be transferred digitally – it cannot be rekeyed into another software package. But there will be a transition period and businesses can cut and paste until 31 March 2020, after which all links between products must be digital.

    Bridging software

    HMRC use the term ‘bridging software’ to mean a digital tool which is able to take information from another application, such as spreadsheets or an in-house system, and allow the user to send the data to HMRC in the correct format.

    Acceptable software

    HMRC produce a list of software companies that are working with them to produce MTD-compatible software. Details can be found on the Gov.uk website

    Partner note: VAT Notice 700/22: Making Tax Digital for VAT.

  • Interest relief for renovation or development costs

    Often, when a property is purchased there is work to be done before it can be let out or sold. Where this work is financed by a mortgage or other loan, the way in which and the extent to which relief is available for the interest costs depends whether it falls with the property income or trading income tax rules.

    The following case studies illustrate the different approaches.

    Case study 1: Buy-to-let investment

    Simon buys a property as an investment, with the intention to let it out long term. The property has been neglected and needs doing up before he can put it on the rental market. The property costs £250,000 and Simon has budgeted £40,000 to renovate it. The purchase and refurbishment work are financed with savings of £70,000 and a mortgage of £220,000. Interest on the mortgage is £800 per month.

    The purchase completes on 1 May 2018. The renovation work takes six months and the property is let from 1 November 2018. At the time the property is let, it is valued at £280,000.

    Under the property income rules interest is allowed as a deduction or tax reduction (as appropriate) to the value of the property when first let. In this case the value of the property when first let (£280,000) is more than the mortgage of £220,000, so relief for the full amount of the interest is allowed in computing the rental profit. For 2018/19, 50% of the interest costs are deductible from the rental income, with relief for the remaining 50% being given as a basic rate tax reduction. For 2019/20, 25% of the interest costs are eligible as a deduction, with relief for the remaining 75% being given as a basic rate tax reduction.

    Relief for the interest incurred in the renovation period before the property was first let is available under the pre-commencement provisions. These allow relief to the extent that it would be available had the interest been incurred while the property was let. The interest in the pre-letting period (i.e. that relating to the period from 1 May 2018 to 31 October 2018 of £4,800) is treated as incurred on the day that the property rental business commences, i.e. 1 November 2018.

    Case study 2

    David also buys a property to do up. However, his intentions are different to Simon in that he wishes to do the property up as quickly as possible and sell at a profit, buying a further property to do up with the proceeds. David is a property developer rather than a landlord and any interest costs incurred in funding the development are deductible under the trading provisions in computing his trading profit. This would be the case regardless of whether David operates as a sole trader or other unincorporated business or forms a company through which to carry out his property development business. Availability of the interest deduction depends on the ‘wholly and exclusively’ rule being satisfied.

  • Employees – claim a tax deduction for expenses

    Employees often incur expenses in doing their job – this may be the cost of a train ticket or petrol to visit a supplier, or purchasing stationery or small tools which are used in their job. Employers will frequently reimburse the employee for any expenses that they incur, but where such a reimbursement is not forthcoming, the employee may be able to claim a tax relief.

    The test

    Employment expenses are deductible only if they are incurred ‘wholly, exclusively and necessarily in the performance of the duties of the employment’. The test is a harsh test to meet; the ‘necessary’ condition means that ‘each and every’ jobholder would be required to incur the expense. Consequently, there is no relief if the expense is not ‘necessary’ and the employee chooses to incur it (even if the ‘wholly and exclusively’ parts of the test are met). The rules for travel expenses are different, but broadly operate to allow relief for ‘business travel’.

    In the performance of the job v putting the employee in a position to do the job

    A distinction is drawn between expenses that are incurred in actually performing the job and those which are incurred in putting the employee in the position to do the job. Expenses incurred in travelling from the office to a meeting with a supplier and back to the office are incurred in performing the job. By contrast, childcare costs or home to work travel are incurred to put the employee in a position to do the job. Relief is available only for expenses incurred as part of the job, and not for those which incurred, albeit arguably necessarily, to enable the employee to do the job.

    Expenses for which relief may be claimed

    A deduction can be claimed for any expense that meets the ‘wholly, exclusively and necessarily’ test. Examples include professional fees and subscriptions, travel and subsistence costs, additional costs of working from home, cost of repairing tools or specialist clothing, phone calls, etc.

    Where the expense is reimbursed by the employer, a deduction cannot be claimed as well; however, the amount reimbursed is not taxable and is ignored for tax purposes.

    Using your own car

    Where an employee uses his or her own car for business travel, the employer can pay tax-free mileage payments up to the approved rates. For cars and vans, this is 45p per mile for the first 10,000 miles in the tax year and 25p per mile for any subsequent miles.

    If the employer does not pay mileage allowances or pay less than the approved amount, the employee can claim tax relief for the difference between the approved amount and the amount paid by the employer.

    Flat rate expenses

    Employers in certain industries are able to claim a flat rate deduction for certain expenses in line with rates published by HMRC (see www.gov.uk/guidance/job-expenses-for-uniforms-work-clothing-and-tools#claim-table). Although claiming the flat rate removes the need to keep records of actual costs, employees can claim a deduction based on actual costs where this is more beneficial.

    How to claim

    There are different ways to make a claim depending on your circumstances. Claims can be made online using HMRC’s online service, by post on form P87, by phone or, where a self-assessment return is completed, via the self-assessment return.

  • Abatement of the personal allowance

    Not all taxpayers are able to benefit from the personal allowance – once income exceeds £100,000 the allowance is gradually reduced until it is eliminated in full. However, there are steps which can be taken to reduce income and preserve entitlement to the personal allowance.

    The personal allowance is set at £11,850 for 2018/19, rising to £12,500 for 2019/20.

    When is it abated? - Once an individual’s ‘adjusted net income’ exceeds £100,000, their personal allowance is reduced by £1 for every £2 by which ‘adjusted net income’ exceeds £100,000.

    The measure of income for these purposes is ‘adjusted net income’. This is an individual’s total taxable income before personal allowances and after deducting certain reliefs, such as:

    • relief for trading losses;

    • donations to charity through the Gift Aid scheme; and

    • pension contributions (deduct the gross amount).

    Polly has taxable income for 18/19 of £120,000. She makes pension contributions of £5,000.

    Polly’s adjusted net income for £2018/19 is £115,000 (£1250,000 - £5,000).

    As her income is more than £100,000, her personal allowance is reduced. The personal allowance for the year of £11,850 is reduced by £1 for every £2 by which her income exceeds £100,000.

    The reduction in her personal allowance is therefore £7,500 (1/2(£115,000 - £100,000).

    Her personal allowance for 2019/20 is therefore £4,350.  Assuming her income remains the same for 2019/20 and she continues to make gross pension contributions of £5,000, she will receive a personal allowance of £5,000 for 2019/20.

    When is the personal allowance lost? - With a personal allowance of £11,850 for 2018/19, individuals with income in excess of £123,700 do not receive a personal allowance for that year. For 2019/20, the personal allowance is £12,500, and is lost once income exceeds £125,000.

    Beware 60% tax in the abatement zone - Where adjusted net income falls within the zone in which the personal allowance is reducing – from £100,000 to £100,000 plus twice the personal allowance – the marginal rate of tax is 60%. This is the combined effect of the application of the higher rate of tax and the reduction in the personal allowance.

    Reduce the 60% band and preserve the allowance - To reduce the income falling in the abatement zone (taxed at a marginal rate of 60%) and to preserve as much as the personal allowance as possible, it is necessary to reduce adjusted net income.

    There are various ways in which this can be achieved - The first point to consider is the timing of income – can income be deferred to the next tax year, or, if income for the current tax year is less than £100,000 but is expected to be above £100,000 in the following year, can income be brought forward to the current tax year. In a family company scenario, it may be possible to achieve this by adjusting the timing of dividends and bonuses.

    Consideration could also be given to putting income earning assets into the name of a spouse or civil partner to reduce income and preserve the allowance.

    Adjusted net income is income after pension contributions. Making pension contributions is tax effective, both in terms of benefitting from the relief available and reducing net income to preserve personal allowances.

    Alternatively, a person can make charitable donations under gift aid to reduce their adjusted net income. Although they will lose the benefit of their income, the cost will be offset slightly by the preserved personal allowance.

  • Amending your tax return

    The deadline for filing the 2017/18 self-assessment tax return of 31 January 2019 has now passed. You filed your return on time and paid the tax that you thought was due, but you know realise that you have made a mistake. Is it too late to correct it, and if not, how do you go about it?

    Time limits

    A tax return can be amended once it is filed – but you only have 12 months from the filing deadline in which to file an amended return. This means that you have until 31 January 2020 to file an amended 2016/17 return where it was filed online. However, if you have found a mistake in your return for 2017/18 or an earlier year, it is no longer possible to file an amended return. Instead, you will need to write to HMRC telling them about the error and advising them of the correct figures.

    Correcting the return

    If you are in still in time to file an amended return (for example, you want to amend your 2017/18 tax return), the mechanism for amending the return depends on whether you filed online or whether you filed a paper return.

    If you filed your return online, you can amend your return online too. To do this, you need to log into your HMRC online account and select the self-assessment from the home ‘at a glance’ page. Under the heading of ‘returns’ it will tell you that you have completed your self-assessment return for the 2017/18 tax year, and provide a number of options, including an option to ‘Amend Self-Assessment return for year 2017 to 2018’. Selecting this option, provides a number of options for amending the already-submitted return, asking the taxpayer if they would like to:

     • add a new section to your submitted return;

     • amend figures already submitted;

     • delete a section from your submitted return;

     • add/delete a section and/or amend a figure; or

     • return to tax return options.

    From there it is simply a case of selecting the appropriate option, amending the return to show the correct figures and filing the amended return.

    If the return was filed using a commercial software package, check whether is facilitates the filing of amended returns. If this is not possible, contact HMRC.

    Where a paper return has been filed, the 12-month amendment window runs to 31 October after the filing deadline (as an earlier deadline applies to paper returns). To amend a paper return, download a new return, complete it correctly, and send it to HMRC.

    Pay more tax or claim a refund

    Amending your tax return will also change the amount of tax you owe. If it is more, you will need to pay this, plus interest (which runs from the due date of 31 January after the end of the tax year). If your tax bill goes down as a result of the amendment, you can claim a refund – but remember you only have four years from the end of the tax year to which it relates in which to do so.

  • Importance of registering for child benefit

    Parents affected by the High-Income Child Benefit charge (HICBC) can be forgiven for thinking that there is no point is registering for child benefit if they are only going to have to give back everything they receive in the form of the tax.

    The HICBC applies where the parent claiming child benefit or their partner has income of more than £50,000 a year. The charge is set at 1% of the child benefit received for each £100 by which income exceeds £50,000. So, for example, if income is £57,000, the charge is equal to 70% of the child benefit received (((£57,000 - £50,000)/£100) x 1%). Once income reaches £60,000, the charge is equal to 100% of the child benefit received. The amount of child benefit received depends on the number of children – it is payable at a rate of £20.70 per week for the first child and £13.70 per week for each subsequent child. Where both partners have income in excess of £50,000, the charge is levied on the partner with the higher income; this is often not the person who received the benefit.

    Child benefit also confers state pension rights. Parents registered for child benefit in respect of a child under 12 automatically receive Class 3 National Insurance credits. Class 3 credits have the effect of making a year a qualifying year for state pension (but not contributory benefit) purposes. Thus, each year that a parent is registered for child benefit for a child under 12 provides one qualifying year for state benefit purposes. A person needs 35 qualifying years for the full single-tier state pension and at least ten to receive a reduced state pension.

    Failing to register for child benefit can mean missing out on an automatic entitlement to at least 12 qualifying years; this is particularly important if the claimant is a stay-at-home parent or works part time but does not pay sufficient Class 1 or 2 contributions to make the year a qualifying year.

    If receiving the money and having to pay it back is a worry, it needn’t be. It is possible to register for child benefit and to elect not to receive it. This can be done online or by contacting HMRC’s child benefit office. Parents can restart the payment of child benefit if circumstances change and the full HICBC no longer applies (for example if income dips below £60,000). Where income is between £50,000 and £60,000 it is worth claiming the benefit as the HICBC will be less than the benefit received. Ring-fencing the amount needed to pay the charge in a separate account will remove some of the worry over having the funds available to pay the tax.

    As claims for child benefit can only be backdated three months, parents affected by the HICBC who have opted not to claim child benefit should do so without delay. Registering for child benefit will also ensure that the child receives a National Insurance number on reaching age 16.

  • Expenses that landlords can deduct

    Landlords must pay tax on any profit from their property rental business (although income from property of less than £1,000 a year can be ignored). In working out the profits, expenses are deducted from rental income. To ensure that the landlord does not pay more tax than is necessary, it is important to deduct all allowable expenses. Remember, the profit calculation is undertaken for the property income business as a whole, not on a property by property basis. Consequently, it does not matter whether the expenses incurred in relation to an individual property exceed the rental income from that property – it is the overall result that matters.

    Cash basis - From 6 April 2017, the cash basis is the default basis for eligible landlords.

    Allowable expenses - An expense is an allowable expense if it is incurred wholly and exclusively for the purposes of renting out the property.

    Common examples of expenses which may be allowable include:

    • repairs and maintenance
    • water rates
    • council tax
    • gas and electricity
    • insurance (e.g. landlords’ buildings and contents insurance)
    • gardening costs
    • cleaning costs
    • letting agents’ fees
    • accountants’ fees
    • rents where the property is sub-let
    • office expenses, such as phone calls, stationery, etc.
    • cost of advertising for new tenants

    Interest and other finance costs - Relief is available for interest on a loan up to the value of the property when it was first let. However, the way in which relief is given for interest is changing from relief as a deduction from income to relief as a deduction at the basic rate from the tax that is due.

    For 2017/18, relief for 75% of the interest costs is available as a deduction and relief for the remaining 25% as a basic rate tax reduction, for 2018/19, relief for 50% of the interest costs is available as a deduction, with relief for the remaining 50% as a basic rate tax reduction. For 2019/20, only 25% of the interest costs are deductible, with relief for the remaining 75% being given as a basic rate tax reduction. From 2020/21 relief for interest is given as a basic rate tax reduction.

    Vehicles - A deduction for vehicle costs can, from 6 April 2017 onwards, be claimed using the approved mileage rates. This is generally easier than working out the deduction based on actual costs (although this method can be used if preferred). The rates are as follows:

    Vehicle Rate - Cars and vans 45p per mile for first 10,000 business miles in the tax year

    25p per mile for subsequent miles

    Capital expenditure under the cash basis - Under the cash basis, expenditure for capital items is deductible unless specifically disallowed. Capital items for which a deduction is not allowed include land and cars.

    Domestic items - Where the property is let furnished, a deduction is allowed for replacement domestic items, as long as they are of an equivalent standard to the item being replaced. A deduction is not allowed for enhancement expenditure.

    Property allowance - A property allowance of £1,000 is available. Property income of less than £1,000 does not need to be reported to HMRC. Where income exceeds £1,000, the £1,000 allowance can be deducted instead of deducting actual expenses. This will be beneficial where actual expenses are less than £1,000.

  • No Minimum Period of Occupation Needed for Main Residence

    Main residence relief (private residence relief) protects homeowners from any gains arising on their only or main home. However, there are conditions to be met for the relief to be available. One of the major ones is that the property is at some time during the period of ownership occupied as the owner’s only or main home. Where this is the case, the period of occupation as a main home is sheltered from capital gains tax, as is the final 18 months of ownership, regardless of whether the property is occupied as a main home for that final period.

    Living in a property for a period of time is worthwhile to secure main residence relief, not least because doing so has the added benefit of sheltering any gain that arises in the last 18 months of ownership.

    But, how long does the property have to be occupied as a main residence to trigger the protective effects of the relief?

    Quality not quantity

    A recent decision by the First-tier tax tribunal confirmed that there is no minimum period of residence that is needed to secure main residence relief – what matters is that there has been a period of residence as the only or main home.

    The case in question concerned a taxpayer who ran a property development company and who purchased a property in which he intended to live in as a main home. The property was initially purchased through the company, but the taxpayer intended to obtain a mortgage to buy it from the company. He lived in the property for a period of two and a half months whilst trying to sort out his finances. As a result of the financial crash, he was only able to secure a buy-to-let mortgage, the terms of which precluded him living in the property. The property was let to a friend, but the taxpayer moved in briefly following the friend’s death and undertook some decorating with a view to moving back in with his family. Due to health problems, this did not happen and the property was sold, realising a gain.

    The Tribunal found that the taxpayer had lived in the property as a main home, albeit for a short period. It was the quality of occupation, not the quantity, that was important. Consequently, main residence relief was available.

    Second homes

    Where a person owns a second home, living in it as a main residence, even if only for a short period, can be beneficial. This will protect not only the gain relating to the period of occupation from capital gains tax but also the last 18 months.

    Partner note: TCGA 1992, s. 222; Stephen Bailey v HMRC TC06085.

  • Is tax payable on tips?

    The question of whether tips and gratuities are taxable and subject to National Insurance Contributions (NICs) often results in a lively debate. Broadly, their treatment will depend on how they are paid to the recipient.

    Cash tips handed to an employee, or say, left on the table at a restaurant and retained by the employee, are not subject to tax and NICs under PAYE, but the employee is obliged to declare the income to HMRC.

    Where HMRC believe that employees in a particular employment are likely to have received tips which have not been declared, they will generally make an estimate of the tips earned on the basis of facts available to them. HMRC often make an adjustment to an employee’s PAYE tax code number to reflect the amount likely to be received during a tax year and the tax and Class 1 NICs due will be collected via the payroll.

    By contrast, if an employer passes tips to employees that are either handed to them (or the employees) or left in a common box/plate by customers, the employer must operate PAYE on all payments made. Tips will also be subject to PAYE if they are included in cheque and debit/credit card payments to the employer, or if they pass service charges to employees.

    The obligation to operate PAYE remains with the employer where the employer:

    • delegates the task of passing the tips or service charges between employees, for example to a head waiter in a restaurant; or

    • passes tips/service charges to a tronc (see below) but the tronc is not a tronc for PAYE purposes.

    Examples - Marcia, a restaurant owner, passes on all tips paid by credit/debit card to her employees. She has made a payment to her staff and must operate PAYE on these payments as part of the normal payroll.

    Franco, also a restaurant owner, allows all cash tips left on tables to be retained in full by his staff. However, to ensure the kitchen staff receive a share, he collects all the cash tips and shares them out to the staff at the end of each day. Franco is involved in the sharing out of the tips and he must therefore include the amounts received as part of the payroll and operate PAYE on them.

    Troncs - Where tipping is a usual feature of a business, there is often an organised arrangement for sharing tips amongst employees by a person who is not the employer. Such an arrangement is commonly referred to as a ‘tronc’. The person who distributes money from a tronc is known as a ‘troncmaster’. Where a person accepts and understands the role of troncmaster, he or she may have to operate PAYE on payments made. Broadly, under such arrangements the employer must notify HMRC of the existence of a tronc created and provide HMRC with the troncmaster’s name.

    There are no hard and fast rules regarding how a tronc should operate and HMRC will apply the PAYE and NIC rules to the particular circumstances of each tronc. Where payments made from a tronc attract NICs liability, responsibility for calculating the NICs due and making payment to HMRC rests with the employer. If a troncmaster is responsible for operating PAYE on monies passed to the tronc by the employer and has failed to fulfil his or her PAYE obligations, HMRC can direct the employer to operate PAYE on monies passed to the tronc from a specified date.

    NICs - Legislation provides that any amount paid to an employee which is a payment 'of a gratuity' or is 'in respect of a gratuity' will be exempt from NICs if it meets either of the following two conditions:

    • it is not paid, directly or indirectly, to the employee by the employer and does not comprise or represent monies previously paid to the employer, for example by customers; or

    • it is not allocated, directly or indirectly, to the employee by the employer.

    Review business records - It is worthwhile checking that businesses treat tips and gratuities correctly. From time to time HMRC carry out reviews of employers’ records to make sure things are in order for PAYE, NICs and separately for the National Minimum Wage (NMW). Any errors in tax and NICs treatment could prove costly.

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   Adrian Mooy & Co Ltd  -  61 Friar Gate   Derby   DE1 1DJ  -

adrian@adrianmooy.com

Adrian Mooy & Co - Accountants in Derby
61 Friar Gate Derby, Derbyshire DE1 1DJ
Phone: 01332 202660 Hours: Mon-Fri 9.00am - 5:00pm

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Adrian Mooy & Co is the trading name of Adrian Mooy & Co Ltd.  Registered in England No. 05770414.

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Registered office: 61 Friar Gate, Derby, Derbyshire, DE1 1DJ

 

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